As a professional discipline, civil engineering is closely related to the total human environment. In all professional endeavors, the civil engineer must consider ecological effects as well as the social, economic, and political needs of people. The civil engineer designs systems to control and manage our water resources to provide electric power, agricultural irrigation, flood control, recreation, water supplies, and wastewater treatment systems for our urban and industrial needs. The civil engineer plans, designs, and constructs our transportation systems—including highways, railroads, waterways, and airports—to connect rural, urban, and industrial areas. The civil engineer also designs and constructs housing and facilities for recreational, industrial, and commercial complexes, which comprise the urban environment. It is the responsibility of civil engineering to minimize air, water, and land pollution and protect the environment. Instructional emphasis is placed on fundamental engineering principles derived from mathematics, chemistry, physics, and engineering science. These subjects provide a sound background for the subsequent introductory courses in environmental, geotechnical, structural, transportation, and water resources engineering.